Research Work

There has been a lot of scientific research which demonstrates the success of neurofeedback in the treatment of several disorders. For more than 30 years neurofeedback has shown very good results in the treatment of attention disorders (AD/HD and all of its subtypes), with improvements equivalent to that from stimulant medication. In fact, individuals with attention disorders often become completely free of medications such as Ritalin following neurofeedback treatment. Moreover, in 10 year follow-up research, about 80% of patients will continue to have eliminated or reduced AD/HD symptoms.


In addition, there is a wealth of evidence to indicate the effectiveness of neurofeedback when used to reduce or eliminate seizures (e.g. epilepsy), and symptoms related to other organic brain conditions such as autism spectrum disorder.  There is also research to suggest that neurofeedback can successfully be used to remediate the effects of: traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), addictions, anxiety and stress, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and depression.


Furthermore, numerous studies have highlighted the success of neurofeedback when used for cognitive/performance enhancement in: professionals and executives, athletes and golfers, artists and musicians, etc. In addition, neurofeedback is also being investigated as a technique to minimise age-related cognitive decline (e.g. increasing memory capacity).



A comprehensive list of scientific, peer-reviewed journal article references and further reading recommendations can be found by clicking on ADHD research or Stress and perforrmance research.

A select choice of research Abstracts from recently published scientific journals can be seen below:


Efficacy of Neurofeedback Treatment in ADHD: the Effects on Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity: a Meta-Analysis

Martijn Arns, Sabine de Ridder, Ute Strehl, Marinus Breteler and Anton Coenen


About one third of patients with epilepsy do not benefit from medical treatment. For these patients electroencephalographic (EEG) biofeedback is a viable alternative. EEG biofeedback, or neurofeedback, normalizes or enhances EEG activity by means of operant Since the first reports of neurofeedback treatment in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in 1976, many studies have investigated the effects of neurofeedback on different symptoms of ADHD such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. This technique is also used by many practitioners, but the question as to the evidence-based level of this treatment is still unclear. In this study selected research on neurofeedback treatment for ADHD was collected and a meta-analysis was performed.

Both prospective controlled studies and studies employing a pre- and post-design found large effect sizes (ES) for neurofeedback on impulsivity and inattention and a medium ES for hyperactivity. Randomized studies demonstrated a lower ES for hyperactivity suggesting that hyperactivity is probably most sensitive to nonspecific treatment factors.

Due to the inclusion of some very recent and sound methodological studies in this meta-analysis, potential confounding factors such as small studies, lack of randomization in previous studies and a lack of adequate control groups have been addressed, and the clinical effects of neurofeedback in the treatment of ADHD can be regarded as clinically meaningful. Three randomized studies have employed a semi-active control group which can be regarded as a credible sham control providing an equal level of cognitive training and client-therapist interaction. Therefore, in line with the AAPB and ISNR guidelines for rating clinical efficacy, we conclude that neurofeedback treatment for ADHD can be considered “Efficacious and Specific” (Level 5) with a large ES for inattention and impulsivity and a medium ES for hyperactivity.

Journal of Clinical EEG & Neuroscience
Volume 40, Issue 3 , July 2009, Pages 180-189


Effect of neurofeedbacktraining on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder:

A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

Johanne Lévesque, Mario Beauregard and Boualem Mensour


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly characterized by impairments in cognitive functions. Functional neuroimaging studies carried out in individuals with AD/HD have shown abnormal functioning of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during tasks involving selective attention. In other respects, there is mounting evidence that neurofeedback training (NFT) can significantly improve cognitive functioning in AD/HD children. In this context, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging ( fMRI) study was conducted to measure the effect of NFT on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with AD/HD. Twenty AD/HD children—not taking any psychostimulant and without co-morbidity-participated to the study. Fifteen children were randomly assigned to the Experimental (EXP) group (NFT), whereas the other five children were assigned to the Control (CON) group (no NFT). Subjects from both groups were scanned 1 week before the beginning of the NFT (Time 1) and 1 week after the end of this training (Time 2), while they performed a Counting Stroop task. At Time 1, for both groups, the Counting Stroop task was associated with significant loci of activation in the left superior parietal lobule. No activation was noted in the ACC. At Time 2, for both groups, the Counting Stroop task was still associated with significant activation of the left superior parietal lobule. This time, however, for the EXP group only there was a significant activation of the right ACC. These results suggest that in AD/HD children, NFT has the capacity to normalize the functioning of the ACC, the key neural substrate of selective attention.

Neuroscience Letters
Volume 394, Issue 3 , 20 February 2006 , Pages 216-221


The effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on personality and mood

Joshua Raymond, Carolyn Varney, Lesley A. Parkinson and John H. Gruzelier


Alpha/theta neurofeedback has been shown to be successful both in treating addictions and in enhancing artistry in music students. How its effects are mediated are not yet clear. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that alpha/theta neurofeedback works inter alia by normalising extreme personality and raising feelings of well being. 12 participants with high scores for Withdrawal (as measured by the PSQ) were given either alpha/theta neurofeedback or mock feedback and their personality and mood were assessed. Withdrawal scores on the PSQ-80 were not found to change in either group but significant effects were found for the Profile Of Mood States (POMS), with real feedback producing higher overall scores than mock feedback (P = 0.056). Real feedback caused participants to feel significantly more energetic (P < 0.01) than did mock feedback. Sessions of real feedback made participants feel more composed (P < 0.01), agreeable (P < 0.01), elevated (P < 0.01) and confident (P < 0.05), whilst sessions of mock feedback made participants feel more tired (P < 0.05), yet composed (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that, whilst 9 sessions of alpha/theta neurofeedback was insufficient to change personality, improvements in mood may provide a partial explanation for the efficacy of alpha/theta neurofeedback.

Cognitive Brain Research
Volume 23, Issues 2-3 , May 2005, Pages 287-292


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